A person has many needs at any given time. Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times. According to him, human needs are arranged in a hierarchy (refer to Figure 1), from the most pressing to the least pressing. In order of importance, they are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. The most basic level of needs must be satisfied first before desiring higher level needs. Therefore, having a Mctoy fulfils the forth level needs, called as â€˜Esteem Needsâ€™. Self-esteem is the desire for status, self-respect and prestige. Owning the series of Hello Kitty dolls has gained a sense of fulfilment to the individual because it is not that easy to get the limited edition toys at any time. Besides that, the â€˜Kiasuâ€™ attitude which is very popular among Singaporeans to have something which everyone else is having, regardless of whether it is of any use. The fear of losing out drives the feeling to fulfil their esteem needs, where they are happy knowing they too have one like others. In order to fulfil the esteem need, people are often engaged in either profession or hobby to gain recognition. For those who loves collecting dolls, use this hobby as a platform to gain recognition from others so that they will be praised. Thus, they feel that by owning the series of hello kitty dolls can make them gained recognition. How has McDonaldâ€™s created value to its consumers by offering Hello Kittty dolls in their Extra Value Meals? Marketing experts, Don Peppers and Martha Rogers say that â€˜The only value a company will ever create is the value that comes from customers.â€™ Customer value is the relationship between the consumers perception of benefits they believe they will derive from a purchased compared to the price that will be paid. The total benefit package includes functional attributes of the product and related service attributes. Creating value not only transforms sales effectiveness, it also provides insulation from price pressure. There are many sales strategies, tactics and techniques for creating value for customers. McDonaldâ€™s has identified the benefits that consumers would gain from the promotion by creating a series of value to its customer through the promotion. The total value created to its consumers by McDonaldâ€™s comprises of four sources namely product, services, personnel and image. Firstly, the product (Hello kitty Dolls) were given as a premium to its loyal consumers at its cost price when consumer purchases the Extra Value Meal, rather than charging any extra amount for it. McDonalds has created value to its consumers by offering this product premium. In terms of service, McDonaldâ€™s has created value to its consumers an alternative way of getting the exclusive dolls, where these dolls can only be purchased through McDonaldâ€™s outlets during the limited period of time. This series of limited-edition toys will not be available as and when consumers want them. Thirdly, the satisfaction gained by consumers by owning these dolls. As the dolls were limited edition and were sold at cheaper price, McDonaldâ€™s has created the satisfaction feeling among its consumers when they own them. And finally image value is created to McDonaldâ€™s consumers where the consumers have the option to choose designs of their preferences during the one-month promotion. The image of â€˜Kittyâ€™ representing different cultures wedding costumes creates value to those owning them. Thus, McDonaldâ€™s has added up values from all the four sources mentioned above to successfully create values to its consumers through its â€˜Hello Kittyâ€™ Promotion. Recommendations and Conclusion Here are several alternatives that McDonaldâ€™s should have considered before carrying out the promotion to avoid such havoc from happening: 1) Study the consumer behaviour of Singaporeans 2) Periods of the promotion 3) Increase the number of toys offered for promotion In conclusion, the havoc caused from the â€˜Hello Kittyâ€™ Promotion in Singapore has not tarnished McDonaldâ€™s image in any aspect. This was proven when McDonaldâ€™s introduced another six sets of designs featured royal costumes around the world a year after, and the sales seem not to be declining. There was no repeat of the previous yearâ€™s frenzy as McDonaldâ€™s was prepared. Several precautions were taken such as limiting the number of dolls each customer can buy to four, and had more dolls in stock for panic buying. Besides that, to monitor and control the crowds, McDonaldâ€™s has hired security personnel and mobile squad officers to visit McDonaldâ€™s outlets.
The analytical audit of the companyâ€™s capital structures of the two companies shows that shows Arizon is highly geared as compared to AT & T. Gearing AT& T is 43. 3% for long term debt and 51. 76% for total equity which is not very high. In case of Arizon, the ratio is very high at 59% for long-term debt to equity while total debt to equity is 74. 91%. The Verizon case indicates that the firm does not have sufficient and steady internal financial resources to finance its assets. These get depleted compelling management to use external financial instruments. This usage of external sources to finance its assets increase chances of the company suffering financial risk that may lead to bankruptcy after technical default. The audit of inventory ratio of the two companies supplied reveals a AT $ T does not have stock while verizon has. This may be that AT & T is a service sector or in the business of manufacture at order or operate Just In Time method of stock refurbishing. While Arizona has inventory which is increasing gradually except in year 2004 when it down from 1. 50% in year 2003. we are not supplied with income statement to be able to determine the firmsâ€™ efficiency in utilizing its resources (inventory) to generate sales is. The close analysis of the two companies ratios provided indicates that AT $ T payable account that fluctuates from time to time. While Arizona have payables with down ward trend. This indicates that Arizona is managing her trade creditors well as compared to AT & T. if payables are not well managed may cause financial stress to the company. The working capital of the Verizona contains a significant proportion of cash fluctuating from time to time. In case of AT & T it is insignificant and it is in the down ward trend. The firms cannot therefore, meet its obligating with the most liquid resources. Additionally, there are no marketable securities that can be easily converted into cash when a financial need arises. What this implies is that the firm may find it difficult to meet its short term maturing financial obligations as and when they fall due for payment. The same conclusion about financial position can be made using both the acid test and cash ratios. From the ratios, the firmâ€™s ability to meet its financial obligations from the liquid assets is also questionable. REFERENCES Luecke R (2002) Finance for Managers; Harvard Business School Lindsay R. (1967) Financial Management, An Analytical Approach; R. D Irwin, 1967
Appearance of colonies microorganism Essay
|Appearance of Colonies |Microorganisms | |Red, surrounded by reddish precipitation zones, diameter1- 2 mm |Lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae: coliform bacteria, E. coli | |Pink, pin-point colonies |Enterococci, possibly Klebsiella | |Colorless |Lactose-negative Enterobacteriaceae |
E. coli: dark-blue to violet colonies (Salmon-GAL and X-glucuronide reaction).
Total coliforms: salmon to red colonies (Salmon-GAL reaction) and dark-blue to violet colonies (E. coli).
Other Gram-negatives: colorless colonies, except for some organisms which possess ÃƒÅ¸-D-glucuronidase activity. These colonies appear light-blue to turquoise.
In order to confirm E. coli, coat the dark-blue to violet colonies with a drop of KOVACS indole reagent.
If the reagent turns to a cherry-red color after some seconds, a positive indole formation confirms the presence of E. coli.
E. coli in Macconkey Agar
|Appearance of Colonies |Microorganisms | |Colorless, translucent |Salmonella, Shigella, others | |Large,
red, surrounded by turbid zones |Escherichia coli | |Large, pink, mucoid |Enterobecter, Klebsiella | |Very small, opaque, isolated colonies |Enterococci, Staphylococci, and others |
S. aureus in baird-parker agar
|Appearance of colonies |Microorganisms | |Black, shiny, convex colonies 1-5 m in diameter with a narrow, white edge surrounded by a clear zone 2-5 mm |Staphylococcus aureus | |wide. Opaque rings within the clear zones only appear after 48 hours of incubation | | |Black, shiny, irregular shape. Opaque zone develop around the colonies after 24 hours. |Staphylococcus epidermidis | |Growth sometimes: | | |Very small, brown to black, no clear zones. |Micrococci | |Dark brown, dull, clear zones sometimes appear after 48 hours. |Bacillus species | |White, no clear zones. |Yeasts |
P. aeruginosa in cetrimide agar
Salmonella in Macconkey Agar
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.